Ethical & Legal Issues (Informed Consent, Anonymity, Confidentiality, Institutional Review Board)

Qualitative Research article analysis 

Name: ____SAMPLE QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS_______________ Date: ___________

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APA Reference:___ Adams, K. W., & Tolich, D. (2011). Blood transfusion: The patient’s experience. American Journal of Nursing, 111(9), 24-30. https://doi.10.1097/01.NAJ.0000656328.23963.82 ____________________________________________________

This analysis is on a qualitative research article. Choose ONE of the qualitative research articles provided in Workshop Two. Do not write a narrative paper. Use the worksheet to complete this assignment. Use your own words to paraphrase information from the article. You can use direct quotes, but use them sparingly. Cite all paraphrases and direct quotes; each box must be cited. Use the grading rubric for guidelines on how to answer each of the questions on the worksheet. When you have completed the assignment, save a copy for yourself and submit a copy to the 2.3 Dropbox by the end of the workshop.



Problem Statement


Purpose Statement


Problem Statement: According to the authors, the problem is that little research had been conducted about the patient’s perspective of the treatment and they sought to fill that gap in nursing knowledge. Purpose Statement: The research purpose was to identify both patients’ understanding blood transfusions, and also whether they experienced discomfort in the process of the blood transfusion. (Adams & Tolich, 2011) Comment by Stormer, Mari: Both the problem stimulating the study and the purpose of the study must be indicated. What was the problem, and why was the study being conducted?

Assessment of Literature Reviewed

(Background information)


Although no U.S. results were located through the literature review, two Australian studies, both from 1999 were reviewed. Also reviewed was a study examining the differences between physicians’ and laypersons’ ideas regarding the risks of various medical procedures, including blood transfusions. In all, 12 journal articles were reviewed, only three of which were published within the past five years. Of the other ten references, seven were texts related to various concepts of research, as opposed to the topic. (Adams & Tolich, 2011) Comment by Stormer, Mari: The assessment of literature reviewed is an assessment of the background information the authors provide on the general topic. You will briefly summarize the literature reviewed and assess the quality and quantity of sources used. This assessment will involve examining both the reference list and the article’s literature review. (How many sources were used? How many peer-reviewed articles? How many were published within five years of when this article was published? What were the topics covered?)

Research Question(swritten as a question

(The findings answer the research question)


The research question was “how do patients perceive blood transfusion?” (Adams & Tolich, 2011, p. 24). Comment by Stormer, Mari [2]: This must be written out as a question. The recurring themes of the study will answer this question. The research question is directly related to the purpose of the study.



Research Design

(Phenomenological, Ethnographic, Descriptive, Exploratory, Grounded Theory)


Research design was a qualitative, descriptive inquiry (Adams & Tolich, 2011) Comment by Stormer, Mari [2]: This is the research method used to conduct the study.



Sample, Setting,


Sampling Method



Sample: Twenty-one patients who had received a blood transfusion. Comment by Stormer, Mari: The sample is a description of the participants who were selected for the study, plus the number of participants. The setting is where the study took place. Sampling method is how the participants are selected. The sampling method will be either probability (random) or nonprobability (nonrandom). The subtype under whichever one it is must also be indicated. The most likely nonprobability sampling method for qualitative research is convenience or purposive. Convenience is who is available, and purposive is picking out certain people the author wants to participate.

Setting: an Ohio hospital.

Sampling Method: A nonprobability, convenience sampling method was used in this study. (Adams & Tolich, 2011)


Data Collection


Data Analysis



Data Collection: The method of data collection was open-ended interviews with a semi-structured format. A list of 35 questions asked of all subjects was included in the article. The interviews were tape recorded and observed by a research assistant. Comment by Stormer, Mari: Data collection for qualitative research is usually interviews, open-ended surveys, or focus groups. Provide a brief summary of the steps used to collect the data. Data analysis should describe how the themes were determined. A technique called content analysis will be used to extract the data. There are a few different types. Describe the one used in the research article. Sometimes it is done entirely manually, and sometimes a software program is also used.

Data Analysis: Transcripts of interviews were analyzed by coding them into themes. The secondary investigator and research assistant later contributed their interpretations regarding the coding. (Adams & Tolich, 2011)


Ethical & Legal Issues (Informed Consent, Anonymity, Confidentiality, Institutional Review Board)


The authors stated that prior to the interviews they discussed their own potential biases and used bracketing to maintain objectivity. Approval was obtained from the hospital’s IRB before beginning the study. Informed consent was collected prior to reviewing the charts and interviewing the patients. To assure confidentiality, the study data was identified by blood product vials, rather than patient names. Patient names were stored in password-protected computers in a locked office. (Adams & Tolich, 2011) Comment by Stormer, Mari: IRB approval from a facility and/or university is required. A plan to get informed consent is required in order to get IRB approval. Confidentiality should be maintained. If the study was funded by an organization, that should be mentioned.



The subjective nature of qualitative research is a limitation in and of itself. Study limitations included small size, one location, a fairly homogenous sample of mostly elderly white women, and no medically unstable patients. Also, the patients were relying upon their memories of a situation in which they were anemic. Comment by Stormer, Mari: Limitations are issues that limit the findings from being generalized to other settings. The authors should mention them, but you can also assess that. Small sample size, nonprobability sampling, a single setting, homogenous sample, and the subjectivity of qualitative research are common limitations.

(Adams & Tolich, 2011)


Common Themes



Upon completion of data analysis, the authors found five distinct themes: paternalism, decision making, patients’ knowledge, blood safety and administration, and the nurse’s role. Paternalism referred to the patients’ viewing their physicians as being knowledgeable and having their best interest in mind. Their decision making followed the physician’s recommendations. Regarding patients’ knowledge, the patients seemed to have not felt as if they’d been adequately informed prior to the transfusions. Regarding blood safety and administration, most patients wondered if the procedure were safe. The nurse’s role was considered to be educative, comforting, and attentive. (Adams & Tolich, 2011) Comment by Stormer, Mari: Common themes are the answers to the research question. For qualitative research, that would be the identified themes. The exact wording of the themes should be indicated, along with a very brief explanation of each theme.

Implications for Nursing Practice


The authors imply that patients seem to need more information before, during, and after a transfusion. They advocated examining and revising transfusion practices, along with related patient education. Nursing students should also be taught the importance of examining a procedure from a patient’s perspective, as well as to provide patient education whenever possible. (Adams & Tolich, 2011) Comment by Stormer, Mari: Implications are how the authors suggest applying the findings to nursing

Recommendations for Further Research


Adams and Tolich recommended surveying nurses for their knowledge deficits regarding blood transfusions. They also suggested studying the reasons patients cite for receiving transfusions, and correlating those to their perceived experiences. Another possibility is that studies conducted in varied cultures could be useful. Duplicating the basics of the study to other procedures would also provide valuable information regarding determining patients’ knowledge and perceptions about procedures. A larger study in a more ethnically diverse population in more than one setting could offer greater external validity. (Adams & Tolich, 2011) Comment by Stormer, Mari: Recommendations are additional studies the authors recommend be done. Sometimes the authors don’t make recommendations, and you would acknowledge that, and then give your own suggestions.